How Do Astronomers Measure Distance?

By | December 7, 2019

Hi, and welcome to Brain Stuff. I’m Jonathan Strickland. And I’m Ben Bowlin. And Ben, I understand we have
an interesting question today. Oh, yeah. This is a good one. All right, so Jonathan. Are you ready? Yep. That’s not the question. OK. All right. How do astronomers
measure distance? How are they able to measure
how far away a star is? Ah, right. So it turns out that measuring
the distance to the star is an interesting problem. So astronomers have come up
with two different techniques to estimate how far away
any given star might be. Now, that first
technique involves triangulation, or parallax. So the Earth orbits
the sun, right? Yeah. Well, as it orbits
that sun, there’s a diameter of orbit
about 186 million miles. So by looking at a start
one day and then, maybe, six months later,
looking at it again? Astronomers can see a
difference in the viewing angle for that star. So with a little trigonometry–
which is, frankly, terrifying to me– the different
angles yield the distance. So this technique
works for stars that are about 400 light years
away from earth, or closer. Now, there’s no direct
method currently available to
measure the distance to stars that are further than
400 light years from Earth. But there’s an
approximation, right? Yes. And this is a pretty clever one. This is the second technique. Astronomers can use
brightness to figure out a star’s distance. So they do this
because it turns out that a star’s color spectrum
is a good indication of its actual brightness. So like blue, white, et cetera. The relationship between
color and brightness has been proven using the
several thousand stars that are close enough to Earth to
have their distance measured directly, that would be the
400 light years and closer. So astronomers can
look at a distant star, determine its color spectrum. And from the color,
then they can determine the star’s
actual brightness. By knowing the actual
brightness and comparing it to the apparent brightness
seen from Earth– that is, by looking at how dim the
star has actually become once its light
reaches the earth, they can determine that
the distance of the star is whatever it happens to be. Right. And there’s some other stuff
we should probably talk about. Yeah. I’ve got some
trivia for you, Ben. Oh, good. OK. All right, so let’s talk about
some of the astronomical units that astronomers use, including
the astronomical unit. So the astronomical unit refers
to the distance between Earth and the sun, the
average distance. It’s about 149 million
kilometers or something. Then you’ve got the light-year. Yeah, what is a light-year? So, a light-year is
like a regular year but with fewer calories. Heh. Actually, of course,
the light year is the distance that
light can travel through the vacuum of space
within the span one Earth year. So that’s pretty big,
because light’s pretty fast? Yeah, yeah. We’re talking just under
10 trillion kilometers. That’s a pretty long distance. But I’ve got something
that’s even longer than that. And that is a parsec. Hang on. Is this a Star Wars reference? It can be. But, all right, so,
Parsec in Star Wars sounds like it’s a unit of time. It’s actually a
unit of distance. And the way it works is
you talk about the distance between our sun and some
other astronomical object that has a 1-second arc degree
difference in parallax angle. Now that essentially means
that when we look at the star and we compare it
to the sun, and we do that again at another
point on the Earth’s orbit, we get that 1-second arc degree. That distance actually ends
up being 3.26 light-years. So it’s even longer. So there you go. Astronomical units. Wait. So the Kessel Run– We’ll get to it. We’ll get to it. Meanwhile, while you guys
have enjoyed this video, you should show your
love to us by liking it, and then subscribe
to the channel. We’ve got a lot
more questions we’re going to be answering,
like the Kessel Run. Thank you. So Ben, the Kessel
Run is, in fact, a smuggling route in
the Star Wars universe. Now, the retconned
explanation of why Han Solo refers
to the parsecs is that this route goes
through several black holes. And for a ship to
be safe, it has to go around the black
holes as much as possible. So the safest route is
probably around 15 parsecs. But Han Solo? He’s a daredevil. And so he cuts off
several parsecs and makes it more of a 12 parsec
or less than 12 parsec run. Oh, that’s the line. Yeah. But is that because of
the Force, or something? No. Han Solo doesn’t
believe in the Force. He’s all skill, man. It has nothing to do with some– It’s been a long time
since I watched Star Trek. So I don’t really, I don’t know.

100 thoughts on “How Do Astronomers Measure Distance?

  1. First Name Last Name Post author

    I love the hand waving!! =D You guys know what is up =) 13 billion years… 15.. 293.. you know.. somewhere on the race track that we put all our money on the horse named "Please have a point origin and not actually be multiple incursions of material billions of light years apart! Pretty Pretty Please" Or Prettyplease for short.

    I really got a kick out of the video where a Chinese grad student walks up to some guy I never heard of house.. Says " it is .2" and then tada pictures of a couple swirls where it is said to be the center of the universe. Meaning until that point it was a far greater shot in the dark concept a center existed and that nearly everyone assumed there was established evidence. When all in all it still may remain to be seen the past.. um however many decades, is just a big joke over humans impulse for symmetry..

    Okay ill shut up now.

  2. First Name Last Name Post author

    Hyperspace your quality is measured in distance because it comes down to the fastest way between two points depends on whats in the way you travel it. ( notice how in starwars the starmaps show zigzags. Not to be assumed as refueling spots, but optimized courses for travel)

    The quality of your ship, and observant piloting, reduces the distance you overall need to travel. HOWEVER this is still not just a matter of time, but strain on the engines, and vulnerability to different methods of detection.

    Which could mean that in certain "Runs" one may want to get as close to a specific value as possible due to a locally used technology and cosmic environment. So as an example 14.3 parsecs may be better than 14.1 because in the last 1.6 parsec stretch you want to maximize travel with as few adjustments as possible to get as close to 14.498 as you can. Similar to the blackhole idea which is also pretty clever =).

    HOWEVER, my good sir thank you for still reading, notice how in the latest starwars movie they were able to come out of hyperspace to land on a planet by manual timing. This is due to velocity factors that are dynamic, not static, to hyperspace conditions.

    Which means even an increased distance is something only the most bad ass star pilots would recognize contextually!

  3. Ehud Realit Post author

    okey how do astronomers measure the distance of the sun?

  4. Matthew Lassiter Post author

    But the earth is flat bros. How can this be true! ??????? oh….. Flat earthers…….

  5. henry mark Post author

    How do astronomers measure radius or diameter of planet or star in galaxy?? I am not interested in distance count.. Radius or diameter only

  6. tjblues01 Post author

    There is one more, and quite accurate technique; a type Ia supernova 🙂 When such supernova goes off the astronomers can measure it's relative brightness (apparent magnitude) and compare it with well known absolute magnitude. This method allows them to measure distance to the stars even in remote galaxies.

  7. Tibi S Post author

    i will be not be surprised if some one gonna found a golden disk with screaming voices and nude picture of some 4 arms creatures in space….

    hope the aliens don't take too serious….

    ? ?? ?? ??☠☼☾☄ ₪itibira₪ ✶☥✨??⊀⋉??☆▲▴◭

  8. Adrian Davis Post author

    so where and how close, is the closest star?

  9. GSpotter63 Post author

    The more mass an object or a region of space has the greater the affect that mass has on the flow of time in that area. It has been predicted for black holes and confirmed by the GPS satellites in the gravity well of earth itself. The signals used by GPS are required to be adjusted to account for time dilation caused by the difference in the gravity well between the orbit of the satellites and the GPS units on the ground. This adjustment is very tiny due to the very small gravity well created by the mass of the earth and the very close orbit of the satellites. This time dilation is a repeatable and verifiable fact one cannot deny. And would apply just as well in all of the known universe, including the vast emptiness found in-between the galaxies. As the mass increases time slows down. The gravity well produced by an entire galaxy containing billions of stars, planets and even black holes will be far larger by factors in the billions then that of just the earth. The difference in the flow of time one would experience at the center of a galaxy would be immensely slower then that witch would be found outside of its gravity well in the intergalactic space in-between the galaxies. If time is slower inside of the galaxies, then it would be faster outside the galaxies. Likewise, in the same manner the GPS satellites experience time faster farther outside earths gravity well then we do her on the ground deeper inside earth's gravity well.

    So what does this have to do with the age of the universe? Think about it…..Time would flow much faster for a spaceship in intergalactic space far outside any gravity well then it would for that same ship traveling inside a galaxy. Likewise…… due to that same time dilation that ship would move far faster in intergalactic space then it would inside a galaxy ( from the point of view of those within a galaxy). It must by pointed out that the ship would never actually exceeds light speed. If time flow increases then the speed of light increases by the same amount.

    So…If a spaceship that could travel at the speed of light were to leave a galaxy one million light years away heading for earth. How long would it take to get here? One million years?

    Only if you ignored the time dilation caused by traveling outside of the gravity wells of galaxies and stars. As the ship crossed that intergalactic space nearly completely devoid of any gravity well it would experience a massive increase in the passage of time. With an equal increase in speed as well. (Again from the point of view of those within our galaxy. Not from the point of view of those on the ship) ) This would result in the ship making the entire voyage in a fraction of the time

    This changes in time dilatation experienced by the ship on its journey would also apply to even the lowly photon……

    So…. Again what does this have to do with the age of the universe? Only that the time it would have taken for light to reach earth from a galaxy one billion light years away would not be one billion years.

    The argument that the universe must be billions of years old because it took billions of years for light to travel to earth from distant galaxies is fallacious. It is based off of incorrect premises about how light would travel outside the gravity wells of stars and galaxies. Therefore it is not a valid argument and one should refrain from using it.

    Real-World Relativity: The GPS Navigation System

    Scientists slow the speed of light
    23 January 2015

    Physicists find a new way to slow the speed of light
    January 23, 2015

    Here's an oldie but a goodie.

    Physicists Slow Speed of Light
    February 18, 1999

  10. ForkInTheRoad Post author


  11. CDubRealTalk Post author

    This is the type or star movement you would expect to observe in a heliocentric model while watching the sky…

  12. Stefan Jordan Post author

    Another video explaining Parallaxes and how Gaia measures stellar distances:

  13. Phal Redenferd Post author

    How do we know different angles yield the distance and why would that be accurate? How do we know the earths diameter orbit around the sun?

  14. Buck Lee Post author

    so the keyword here is 'estimate'. fucking shitbags. just like dark matter exists because it breaks the general laws of gravity but yet never detected. fuck fuck fuck sutch utter bullshit.

  15. Karina Nal Post author

    I would like to know if anyone can obtain special equipment needed to verify these things for themselves. Can a common person who is not an astronomer go buy the kind of a telescope needed to see this with their own eyes. For example, the detectors needed for detection of the traces of the subatomic particles cost millions of dollars, and I doubt that they are sold to anyone who isn't deeply indoctrinated/educated. Besides they do not detect actual subatomic particles, they detect the traces, and they came up with the subatomic particle through mathematic equations. Which means that tomorrow we can find out that the whole theory of the subatomic particle was wrong.

  16. Johnnie Post author

    Nothing is worse in a video like this where an important message is being conveyed and the message is washed out by some ridiculous and unnecessary loud porn music in the background. Why can't people leave music out of videos – if I want music – I will get music. A total fail.

    PS…, I tried to muster through and listen to the talk …., nope – gotta go…………

  17. Marcia Post author

    Check out this best explanation I've ever seen.

  18. KnygnešyS Post author

    but they didnt need to find distance to sun its already given nice where u fond it bible :))))))))))))))))))))))
    brain stuff not actual brain in your heads you dont understand at all what you talking about

  19. Nasser Alhameli Post author

    So based on Sun distance? How they knew sun distance?

  20. Average Joe Post author

    Flawed science.  The luminance of a star 400 light years away is the brightest the star was 400 years ago.  Still sounds like a reasonable estimated.  For a super nova 10 billion light years away, you see the brightness of the star 10 billion years ago.  The equations used to determine the acceleration of galaxies moving apart do not include the function of the speed of light.  This is just one example of how physicists are failing since the 1970s.

  21. Q TV Post author

    This is BS!!! The earth travels not just around the sun but it also Travels with the Sun around the Milkyway @ 2.1 billion miles in 6 months! So you can not use parallax to judge distance. They try to dumb the masses down to believe this shit!

  22. NOST4YOU Post author

    Ya, The lie begins when you say Estimate, but you first have to assume or presume, that the earth IS going around the Sun, "Which is LIe 1" , lie #2, you have to assume the earth is Round.. If not, then ALL of the math is Bogus. Lie #3, You have to create Size. For example, the Sun and moon appear to be the same size. So to make the Sun Further away, it has to be larger.. So that how they add More assumption to it by saying its Bigger and we go around it.. The Whole Globe system is a Evil Fantasy for people that wanted to eliminate God from the Equation. Hence the reason they knew it was flat, The people that Wrote the Bible used Terms God explained, That are Provable, The New age uses theories to create a Baseline for their LIES>.. Which are Unprovable, and Mock ups are Usually False Data. Such as Vacuum tubes.. They can very easily add weight to feathers, and play tricks with changing from one camera to another.. Kind of like Space, No rocket ever flies straight out… And No Hubble or Rocket takes SOLID No Screen changing footage from earth to Space. they ALWAYS Stop the shot to say something, then resume back in CGI. So the Colors change at a Max point of REAL Height to CGI and creat a false sense of reality as it goes out further.. Science is Full of lies.. PERIOD

  23. WDEMMEL Post author

    Based on published and peer reviewed science, Polaris (North Star) is at a distance of 433 (1990), 330 (2006), 359 (2008), 323 (2013), >=385 (2014), 346 (2015) light years.

    Based on published and peer reviewed science, a far away observed star is the light arriving at earth from the location where that star was at the time it omitted that light.

    Based on published and peer reviewed science, Polaris maintains within a deviation of 1.5% a near static position relative to earth in near exact synchronization with the path of the earth.

    Based on published and peer reviewed science, Polaris would have to be physically at a location 433, 330,359, 323, 385 or 346 light years away from the location where the observable light originated.

    That altogether would have to put Polaris physically right now, smack middle into our solar system. So it would have to be the sun, or the earth itself.

    Would anybody care, to explain, where Polaris resides right now physically , not the observable light we see in the sky, but the physical star.
    Where is it, right now?
    Why is no distance measured based on triangulation from earth?
    What is the actual distance?

    If you can't give the answers to these questions, what good is modern science, and where do you take your FAITH in science from?

  24. megalo Dan Post author

    how did they get the diameter of the orbit of the sun

  25. hippo potamus Post author

    Sounds like a bunch of bullshit mumbo jumbo made specifically to not be understood and thus not questioned. 93 million miles my ass.

  26. guasabito Post author

    Parallax allows you to calculate the distance of stars that are up to 500 parsecs or about 1600 light years. Don't trust this "experts"!

  27. guasabito Post author

    This video is incomplete. The apparent brightness has to be used with Luminosity. Using the inverse-square law then you determine the distance. b=L/4pid^2

  28. kos sher Post author

    i did not like your explanation. but tnx

  29. aeopmusic Post author

    How did they figure out the orbital circumference is 186k!!?

  30. prince charles Post author

    consider, NASA found a planet X in another galaxy and say its 10 million light years away from us.
    Here is my question
    How they say the distance exactly?
    the revolution of planet X may be differ or the direction may differ then how they say the distance exactly.

  31. wallee Post author

    How many different types of measurement are there in space?
    How we have miles and centimeters etc. Is there just lightyear and parsec?

  32. Mark Polley Post author

    So let me sum up this entire video — Complete B.S. brought to you by the fools as nasa!

  33. Powell Diesel Post author

    I knew the second method. However, the 1st method was a surprise to me. Both seem like pure speculation that is taught as truth in the schools.

  34. White Wolf Post author

    Okay, if I bring this down to scale… You are standing in Burlington CO and looking at a Wolf on Pike's Peak. You take three steps to the right and you can now compute the distance (within two significant figures) how far the wolf is from that pine tree at the top of that hill twelve miles away, and far the wolf and the tree are away from you. Yeah, right. Even if the earth were a planet whizzing around the sun, given light refraction this is not going to work, even if you're a whiz at trigonometry. Using color and spectrometry involves even more assumptions.

  35. White Wolf Post author

    Harrison Ford couldn't read scripts. He was supposed to say he made the Kessel run across four parsecs, not in for parsecs. But I guess the guys at the cutting room were tired that day and let that one slide, so now everybody thinks a parsec is a unit of time. Just goes to show how powerful is the force Hollywood exerts on the American psyche.

  36. Scince Dur Post author

    Durrr it takes us scientists to find out how far a star is 6 months Durrr

  37. Hakeem Nafal Post author

    brightness my ass … if a street light bulp is 100 meter away from me and the brightness is huge thats mean its 1 light year away from me .. go educate ur self … stupid

  38. Smitty Fan Post author

    Star Wars, Star Trek, Stargate and Starman are more real than star measurements.

  39. jazla111 Post author

    What a load of crap you can measure the angle of perspective which proves something is not as high as it actually is.Triangulation to get measurement is non sense.It might work in 2 dimensions but we live in 3 dimensions.

  40. Boromonkey Post author

    I'd like to think that scientists are fail-proof…..But as years go by, I realize that they are usually wrong 80% of the time until someone is brave enough to say so. (new ice age, eggs, climate change, etc.) I figure in 30 years this vid will be an example. "Oops 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 light years was a LITTLE off, based on the fact that we can't triangulate based on essentially zero triangulation."

  41. dumbcreaknuller Post author

    its funny how half the distance around the earth is half the days in a year. 186 000 000 miles is rugly the diamter across the ratio fo 360 degrees like half a circle. the speed of light is 186 000 000 miles per second. strange these numbers all sound the same. half a circle is 180 degrees. the brightness of a star does not tell anthing about its distance neither does it tell anything about its size. the angles of the two locations of the earth across the diameter of the sun does not tell anything about how far away it is as the triangulation only work if you already know the size of the object. you don't so it could be far away or close and all look the same. the brightness of a star can vary but unless we know the process that create the light, we can not know its size. another thing is if the star if further away, the brightness is dimmer, notice this does not help if the object is bigger at that distance. if the object is smaller, it can be dimmer or brighter how ever its no way to tell for sure. 360 + 12 = 372 / 2 = 186. all these numbers are old ancient numerology reprinted as modern astronomical numbers. only a stupid would not recognize this numrical madness as its in everything we learn about the world, and the media as well. the ratio of 360 degrees full circle does not tell its size and can have any size. put this in the light equation and you get the same speed regardless of scale or more exactly the same number. this is contradictory and impossible unless light is a fractal where distance and speed is propotionalities to scale. that mean that when light escape the earth it accelerate and speed up, as it leaves the solar system, it accelerate even further and that a signal can reach another galaxy in much shorter time than we think. all the numbers in astronomy are just propotionalites, not real distances of anything. the elegancy of the unvierse is all in the numbers. its not really out there but in the pen and paper and the minds of the people who wrote the numbers.

  42. joeskis Post author

    How do you know you're looking at the same star though? In relation to the other ones around it? But wouldn't that require an assumption of how they probably relate?

  43. Herbie Post author

    In other words, astronomers are guessing. Those methods are ridiculous for an object that far.

  44. Aweri Blakely Post author

    if you have the distance to mars as one measurement, then have the distance from mars to one of the satellites of mars, then use pythagoras to measure the difference between the straight path to mars and the diagonal to a satellite of mars, calculator will tell you that the path difference is less than a centimeter.. Is the calculator wrong (taking shortcuts using ratios or something) , how would you accurately make that calculation?

  45. lord tator Post author

    This shit is more far fetched than alot of religious bullshit,

  46. mark graham Post author

    Totally bullshit…you didn't answer shit…

  47. Pruthvi teja Pruthvi teja Post author

    How do they measure distance from Earth to star without any data about the problem

  48. Peter Lustig Post author

    2:56 thought he was going to say my penis

  49. Jaromir Dub Post author

    They pulling those numbers out of the assess.

  50. Kimberly Thomas Post author

    How much is just Theories, spoken of like the Gospel Truth. I hardly buy anything they say about space.

  51. Amy Shaw Post author

    How do we start at 86,000,000 miles? Anyway, I thought it was 92,000,000 miles to the sun.

  52. Jackson Tide Post author

    Yeah but it doesn’t explain the fact that the sun is also moving so there no way to measure the distant of stars outside our solar system

  53. Rituparna Kundu Post author

    how ironic is that all those people who cannot even pass a 10th grade math test are claiming that the whole astronomical science is based on lie and assumptions.
    Sorry to burst your bubble guys but it's not based on mere assumption but MATHS only.
    They did not just assumed the earth to sun distance but calculated it prior by simple trigonometrical techniques an observations. And yes observation by simplest telescope and naked eye is still the most important in astronomy . So to know why can't they use highly sci fi technology for measurements you need to study a bit more of astrophysics than that of your high school books.

  54. L. W Post author

    160 000 years are wasted annually on videos on Youtube where the viewer did not gain any knowledge what so ever!

  55. Cory Buck Post author

    In response to the first technique:
    1) They calculate the distance using measured angles. They do not measure the distance. Otherwise they would have to travel the distance.
    2) The sun is moving over 7x the speed of the earth due to its orbiting of the galaxy. I do not see that taken into account.
    3) We do not know the speed at which the star is traveling. I do not see how we could even think to take that into account without first knowing its distance and direction of movement.
    4) The use of parallax to determine distance requires that only the view point changes, while the target remains stationary. When I see the parallax of my thumb caused by switching which of my eyes is open it is the distance between my eyes that allows me to view the parallax of my thumb. However, neither my head or my thumb is moving while I am switching which eye is open, otherwise they would alter the results.
    **note: this is assuming a spherical, heliocentric model as our indoctrination has taught.

    In response to the second technique:
    1) This is the brightness equation for stars: B = L/4πd2, where B = Brightness of the star in w/m^2, L = Luminosity of the star in watts, and d = distance to the star in meters. According to this equation, it is not apparently obvious to me how one would calculate (again not measure) distance without knowing the actual luminosity of the star in addition to its brightness which is known from measured RGB.
    2) This method requires that there be nothing between the observer and the star, otherwise it would obfuscate the result. However, there are plenty of NASA articles about alleged water and other materials in space.
    3) The technique is further complicated when you add in that it, the technique, was derived from the closer stars using the first method mentioned.

    "We can invent as many theories we like, and any one of them can be made to fit the facts. But that theory is always preferred which makes the fewest number of assumptions. " – Einstein

    We can dream in fantasy, but we must wake to the truth.

  56. J knowledgenet Post author

    U wait till the same day a yr later and the start is in the exact same place, hence their is no parallax in the stars.

  57. truthbetold Post author

    You cannot measure the distance of stars from the earth. 1) you don't know the initial size of the stars. 2) You don't know the initial brightness of the stars. 3)You don't know what kind of environment the light is travelling through, light isn't a constant, it can be sped up, and slowed down depending on outside influences. So with just these 3 factors it's impossible to measure the distance stars are from the earth.

  58. stefan goldberg Post author

    bull dust just stick your nose out whe partly cloudy, you get perfect angles. take it from there.

  59. dean hepple Post author

    You need to know the first distance before you can work out the answer . You can't just say " it's about 280,000,000 miles away .

  60. dean hepple Post author

    So to start off with an equation you say it's about lol

  61. barbapapa plouf Post author

    Just wondering, those methods don't measure the REAL distance of the object from the earth. Let's say we look at a star, and with the parallax method, we get a distance of 300 light years. However, this is not the REAL distance of the star at the time of the observation. This is the PAST distance of the star from us, 300 years ago.

    So 2 questions:
    1. how does from this measure about the PAST distance of a star can we infer the REAL (or PRESENT) distance of the star?
    2. How can we then know from this the REAL position of the star relative to us? I mean, we not only need to know the distance, but the direction that the star followed while going from the PAST distance to the PRESENT distance.
    BONUS: how can we know these things for very distant stars (billions and billions light years from us)?

  62. CEEAKI 22nd century Post author

    BULLSHIT at its FINEST….the Astronomical Unit was just changed to a number in what 2012??ask yourself what was it before that. Ask why is their no working measure for a 'Meter" the unit need to the speed of light. To even form the concept of a light year. food for thought. Don't listen to these weirdos.

  63. Travis Webb Post author

    So there is no way of confirming the sun's distance? At the point we are using a formula (math) which can be made up to determine the distance of the sun, and we teach this as fact? This is bullshit!

  64. Mark Bernhardt Post author

    When I was a child a man came to our house to measure the height of a tree because he thought it might have made a state record. He did it from the ground. Being young I thought it was wizardry that he could measure the height of a tree without climbing a tree. Math can solve problems. There are so many idiots here in the comments who are too lazy to learn how to apply the equations or trust in math, all the while using phones and computers to comment on the internet all of which are brought to you by science and engineering, both being driven by math.

  65. Kyle Bohna Post author

    How do they know how far the Sun is? You say they're using that as a scale.

  66. Kyle Bohna Post author

    Sometimes this stuff sounds like pseudoscience to me. A bunch of made-up stuff with numbers that for some weird reason are always like six six six or three three three I'ts just really weird coincidences that occur with their calculations. Not to mention JPL was started by people that worship Aleister Crowley and it still goes on today. Do you have any answers to this? I'd love to hear them.

  67. Leon Maliniak Post author

    If you used this kind of vague language and these kind of " estimates " in any other scientific discipline you would consider it to be a non science.

    All of the calculations of the distance of stars and galaxies are based upon the underlying presumption that we actually know the true speed and nature of light….but WE DO NOT !!!

    There are numerous experiments which have observed and measured SUPRA-LUMINAL phenomena by teams of physicists all over the world. TESLA himself dismissed out of hand the EINSTEIN conclusion about the limitation on the speed of light and reported having observed on numerous occasions, in his actual CONCRETE EXPERIMENTS, speed greatly in excess of the conventional " C "

    When astronomers and astro-physicists start talking about observing galaxies 500 MILLION LIGHT years away, the average person is left dumbfounded and take the position that this is a meaningless exercise…UNLESS you can consider the possibility that we are wrong about the speed of light and that the universe is actually much smaller than what we think.

    Lawrence Burbidge SUGGESTED THAT OUR CALCULATION OF THE red shift is incorrect and that the universe is in fact much smaller than what we think. EINSTEIN was wrong about GRAVITY and about the COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT and STEPHEN HAWKING was wrong about the Universe shrinking…so we amateur " theoretical " physicists can hypothesize to our hearts content because we cannot be any more wrong then they were.

    The SPEED OF LIGHT and the fact that we are supposedly not able to travel faster than the speed of light are the result of a fallacious application by EINSTEIN of the LORENZ TRANSFORMATION equations.

    In the equation for the conversion of MASS, the denominator of the radical on the calculation of an object's FINAL MASS upon acceleration becomes a ZERO when the speed approaches or becomes equal to the speed of light. This gets EINSTEIN to state that a ZERO in a denominator equals INFINITY and such a solution would lead to the concept of INFINITE MASS…which he says is impossible….therefore no material object can travel at the speed of light ….A CLASSICAL SELF-SERVING and circuitous line of reasoning which is imminently contestable. This is because having a ZERO in a denominator is NOT necessarily equal to INFINITY…that is not a mathematical LAW, it is just a mathematical philosophy which many other scientists disagree with.

    In my opinion, the TUNNEL EFFECT experiment also proves that there must be an INVISIBLE portion of light which we cannot measure or detect with our current instruments until it SLOWS down to the speed of light. This would explain why in that experiment, in a RACE between two beams of light from the same source, split into two chambers the one in the vacuum LOSES the race consistently to the beam in the chamber obstructed by cesium atoms to try to slow it down. Since that chamber WINS the race, it is obviously travelling faster than conventional " C " and more-over, it seems to be exiting the apparatus BEFORE it enters.

    From these experimental facts, even YODA'S " younglings, unburdened by the prejudices of conventional wisdom, and by common sense would conclude that there is in fact an INVISIBLE PORTION of light which we cannot see until it slows down

    I submit that this RADICAL concept would explain and resolve many of the controversies in physics such as the QUANTUM PARADOX, the DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT and the basis of QUANTUM PHYSICS with its " missing " information

  68. Alaine Copeland Post author

    So in other words scientist and astronommers ??? is " assuming "

  69. Rüdiger Weissmann Post author

    Speculations made on speculations… thats what we have

  70. sooperdoopercoolguy Post author

    bare with me, im not very bright… so if you are triangulating from the two furthest perpendicular points in the earths circumnavigation, what happens to entire solar systems motion through the galaxy and the galaxies motion through the universe (what with "expansion" and all that)? and the what about the distant bodies motion (of which how would you even know?)? are these motions, that are theorized to be so many times greater, just left out of this formula? And why dont they just show us the math? They never(meaning anybody) show us any math, ever notice this? just crazy random numbers stated in fact. could there be any interference in this line of sight, i mean 20,000 light years has to be a long friggen path, a few clouds can block our sun. and something tells me that our sun cannot be observed 20,000 light years away, i dont care what kind of a vacuum your viewing it in. so i dont know if basing their calculations on our sun is the wisest of calculations.

    I don't want to comment on this stuff because i know that its lost on everybody, but i just cant help it, the lies are so friggen grossly blatant and pretentious.

    Oh, yeah then the other way, the color durp durp. do i even have to explain how that is the most asinine unscientific thing that could ever been spoken? (but you can believe us because we proved it by the other distance measuring protocol that we just explained), and trust us, it proved everything we are saying now. Hahaha. i feel like im watching spongebob. then hurry up and switch the convo to mindless drivel about starwars, they'll love that. in fact, break out the millennium falcon stuff!

  71. Lorenzo Salinas Post author

    That would make sense if we were on another planet at same time

  72. Vickram Sammy Post author

    Who else think that the ball headed one resembles big show??

  73. Single Dad Life Post author

    B.S.. most scientists have theories and a theory is Nothing but an Educated Guess….. That’s right a Guess…. which means it’s not Proven.. Fuk off…

  74. falcor1969 Post author

    Here's a scenario…you're in a dark room of unknown size. It's pitch black with absolutely no indications of anything. You see a light ahead of you. 1. Determine the distance the light is from you. 2. Determine the size of the object giving off the light. What's that??…You can't do either…are you sure? The only way you can measure the distance to another object from you is by 2 methods only. 1. a common point of reference such as an object relatively close to you where by you can easily and accurately determine that objects distance from you and observe its relative position to the other object. 2 A measuring device which must originate from you to the object you are measuring. You can't do either of these with lights in the sky. You can't determine how big they are or how far away they are and that is a scientific fact. When we look up at the moon, we have absolutely no way of knowing how big it is. We can speculate but that's not accurate. We also don't know how far away it is unless you can accurately measure a light causing shadow from 2 or even 3 different positions accurately measured from where you are, then using poles or anything of a calculated height, measure the length of the shadows in all 3 locations. This method of triangulation is pretty accurate. Stars distance from us is indeterminable and their relative size is also indeterminable. I challenge anyone to accurately measure the size and distance from us of anything they see in the heavens. And don't say you can measure it by the light. Light is not a constant and you still can't tell how far away from you an object is by the light you see. That doesn't tell you when the light bounced off the object or how long it took to reach your eyes. Do you really think light travels unimpeded through the so called vacuum of space for 400 light years…or even 4 trillion light years…come on…smarten yourselves up and STOP BEING PUPPETS.

  75. lachie Bosman Post author

    So measuring how far away a star is, is only theory? I never knew that, I mean I’m not super surprised but it’s cool to know

  76. Jack Bynum Post author

    Makes no sense … Maybe I'm not smart enough to understand… How can u determine how bright something supposed to be compared to what ur seeing if u never seen what it's brightest possibility is…… Plus if tge light we are see is millions years old how can u get a accurate reading


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