Venus: Crash Course Astronomy #14

By | December 1, 2019

This episode of Crash Course is brought to you by SquareSpace Venus was the Roman goddess of love, and honestly,
if you’ve ever seen it after sunset, hanging like a diamond in the twilight, the planet
Venus is stunningly beautiful. The only problem? Venus is hell. Venus is the second rock from the Sun, closer
to the Sun than Earth is. It’s the third brightest natural object in the sky after
the Sun and Moon, and it’s shockingly bright when you see it, in fact, a lot of the time
when people see it they think it’s an airplane. Some folks—and this is true—even report
it as a UFO. Like Mercury, it never gets far from the Sun;
at best it can reach about 45° away. If you want to see it, the best time to look is after
sunset or before sunrise. Through a telescope, Venus can be seen to
undergo phases just like the Moon and Mercury do, too. When it’s on the far side of its
orbit from Earth, we see the illuminated face, so it looks full. As it rounds the Sun and
approaches Earth in its orbit, it gets bigger from our point of view, because it’s getting
closer, but it also wanes; it’s gibbous, then half full, then a crescent. When it gets between the Sun and Earth, it’s
as close as it can get to us, about 45 million kilometers away. It’s a very thin crescent
at that point, but close enough to us that you can see the phase easily with just binoculars.
Ironically, even though we see only a small portion of it illuminated then, it appears
so big that it’s actually brighter than when it’s full but far away. The orbit of Venus around the Sun is tipped
with respect to the Earth’s by a little over 3°. So, like the Moon as seen from Earth,
Venus usually passes above or below the Sun in the sky as it laps the Earth and pulls
ahead in its orbit. But again, just like with the Moon, sometimes
things line up just right and Venus passes directly across the Sun’s face. This event
is called a transit. During a solar eclipse the Moon can completely block the Sun, but
Venus is much farther away, so it can only block about a tenth of a percent of the Sun.
We see the planet as an inky black circle against the Sun’s face. Transits were very important centuries ago.
Scientists realized that by precisely timing the start and end of a Venus transit, and
applying a little geometry, they could figure out how far away Venus was, and use that like
a meter stick to measure the size of the entire solar system. Grand expeditions were sent
to remote parts of the Earth where the transits were visible, but it turns out Earth’s atmosphere
blurs the disk of Venus just enough that exact timing of the transit isn’t possible. Scientists had to wait until we could use
radar and other methods to get the exact distances to planets in the solar system, but transits
are still pretty amazing to watch. They’re very rare: the way the orbits of Venus and
Earth align, they happen in pairs separated by eight years, but then don’t happen again
for over a century. The last pair of Venus transits happened in 2004 and 2012. I was
fortunate enough to see both the 2004 and 2012 transits and they were totally cool.
But the next one? December 10, 2117. If you missed the last two, sorry about that. Venus is actually so bright sometimes that
it can be seen in broad daylight; I’ve done this myself. So here’s an obvious question:
Why is Venus so bright? Telescopic observations show it to be a nearly featureless white disk,
completely covered in a thick cloud layer, reflecting almost all of the sunlight that
falls on it. OK, great, so that’s why it’s bright, but then why are its clouds so thick? Well, it turns out that Venus might be nice
to look at from a distance, but up close, yikes. In some ways, Venus is the planet in the solar
system most similar to Earth. It’s only a wee bit smaller — 12,100 kilometers across,
about 95% the width of the Earth — and has 80% the Earth’s mass. But if it’s a twin
of Earth, it’s the evil twin. Venus is closer to the Sun. At a distance
of about 110 million kilometers, 2/3rds the distance of the Earth from the Sun, you’d
expect it to be warmer. What you might not expect is that its surface temperature is 460°
Celsius— that’s 860° F, hot enough to melt lead. And it gets worse. Its air is almost entirely
composed of carbon dioxide, and atmospheric pressure on Venus is a crushing 90 times that
of Earth’s! As if that’s not bad enough, it rains sulfuric acid, too, but it’s so hot the
drops evaporate before hitting the ground. Yep. Venus is hell. Why? How did it get so hot? It turns out Venus
is a victim of a runaway greenhouse effect. A long time ago, Venus may have been more
temperate, and might have even had liquid water oceans. But the Sun was cooler when
it was younger, and as it aged it got hotter. At some point, the thinking goes, the Sun
warmed Venus enough that its oceans started to evaporate. Water vapor is an excellent
greenhouse gas, so Venus’s heating accelerated. It got so hot the oceans boiled away. Any
carbon dioxide dissolved in the water was released to the atmosphere, heating the planet
even further, and thickening the atmosphere hugely. It got so hot that the CO2 even got
baked out of the rocks, which was like, well, throwing gasoline on a raging fire. The greenhouse
effect raged out of control at that point. Venus lacks a magnetic field, so it has no
protection from the solar wind blasting past it. Over billions of years, this stripped
a lot of the lighter elements from the atmosphere, as well as all of the water. The resulting
atmospheric chemistry is pretty screwy compared to Earth. Sulfur dioxide is a popular molecule
there, and clouds form from sulfuric acid. Those clouds are high off of the surface,
and very white and reflective. It’s pretty incredible to think about. The
Sun warmed, so Venus warmed, and then a cascading series of events lead to it being a ridiculously
hostile environment due to the runaway greenhouse effect. Even though Mercury is closer to the
Sun, Venus is way hotter! Given that, the last thing you might expect
on Venus is… snow. Well, possibly; observations show that there’s something shiny on the
mountaintops, and snow fits the bill. But it’s not water ice like on Earth. As the
thinking goes, at lower elevations, minerals like bismuthinite and galena would be vaporized
by the heat. They’d then circulate up into the atmosphere and deposit onto the surface
at mountaintops where it’s cooler. If this is correct, then Venus is so bizarre it literally
snows metal there! There’s other weird stuff going on at Venus,
too. For one thing, it has an incredibly slow rotation rate: One day on Venus is about 243
Earth days! It rotates so slowly that at its equator, you could jog faster than the planet
spins. Its slow spin is probably why it has no magnetic field, too, since rotation is
critical in generating the magnetic fields of objects like the Earth and the Sun. Not only that, but the planet spins backwards!
This is called retrograde motion, and in a sense it means Venus’s north pole got swapped
with its south pole: It flipped over. It’s not clear why that happened. A lot
of ideas have been proposed, including a giant collision that skidded the planet’s spin
to a halt, but as of right now, Venus’s lazy rotation is still not completely understood. If you could survive it, living on Venus would
be really odd. The thick clouds mean it’s about as bright as twilight on Earth, despite being
closer to the Sun. The thick atmosphere also means surface temperature is about the same
everywhere on the planet, pole to equator. Due to its backwards rotation, the Sun would
rise in the west, and due to the slow rotation its day is actually longer than its year!
Calendars on Venus would be a mess. But calendars would probably be the least
of your worries if you had to live there. Incidentally, Venus has no moon. Being closer
to the Sun, it’s possible that any moon it may have once had would have been perturbed
by the Sun’s gravity, and was eventually tossed out of Venus’s grasp. It’s also possible
it simply never had one to begin with. And here’s another fun fact: Venus is the
most spherical of all the planets. Because it rotates so slowly, it doesn’t bulge out
at the equator from centrifugal force like Earth does. The diameter from pole to pole
is almost exactly the same as it is through the equator.
We don’t have a lot of data about the interior of Venus, though given its similar composition
and size to Earth, it’s not too crazy to think it has a core, mantle, and crust like
we do. But even given the weird atmosphere, the surface of Venus is really different than
ours. Venus doesn’t have tectonic activity like
Earth does; it’s thought that water helps drive that, and Venus long ago lost its water
to the greenhouse effect. Still, the surface appears to be very young; about a thousand
impact craters have been found, and they’re evenly distributed around the planet. The
majority appear to be in pretty good shape, they haven’t been eroded much, indicating
they aren’t terribly old. Not only that, but the erosion we do see seems to be about
the same for all these craters, indicating they’re all roughly the same age! That’s weird! This all points to some sort
of catastrophic event that resurfaced the planet roughly half a billion years ago. Any
features older than that were wiped out, and then big impacts over time created the craters we
see now. But what could repave an entire planet? A big clue can be found by counting volcanoes
on Venus: There are 167 bigger than 100 kilometers in diameter, a huge number. These volcanoes
could, over time, pump out enough lava to cover the entire surface of Venus. There’s
also a lot of indirect evidence that volcanic activity is ongoing, now, today: One mountain
on Venus, called Idunn Mons, is seen to be abnormally warm, for example, indicating it
might have magma under its peak. Also, sulfur dioxide levels dropped a lot in the 1980s,
which may indicate a big volcanic event happened in the 1970s, blasting out lots of the gas,
which then subsided. It’s possible, though somewhat speculative, that the entire planet
is a supervolcano, a ginormous pressure cooker of barely-constrained magma. Every few hundred
million years, the whole surface lets go in a colossal eruption, covering everything in
lava. Yikes. Some volcanic features on Venus are different
than on Earth. Without tectonics, slow bubbling leaks of lava from the interior of the planet
can continue in one spot for a long time. This creates what are called “pancake domes”:
huge, flat, low domes. Many are dozens of kilometers across, but less than a kilometer
high. The lava that formed them was probably really viscous, which is why the domes are
flattened and spread out. The searing surface temperature of Venus probably kept the lava
hot and helped it spread out more, too. Oh, and one final note: under international
agreement, surface features on Venus— mountains, plains, craters, and so on—are
all named after women or goddesses of various cultures. This is an homage to the planet
itself being named after a goddess, of course, but also? It’s just cool. Today you learned that Venus is the same size
as Earth, but with a super thick atmosphere. A runaway greenhouse effect makes it the hottest
planet in the solar system. It has the slowest rotation of any planet, and spins backwards.
Tremendous volcanic activity ages ago resurfaced the entire planet, and it still may be active
today. Crash Course Astronomy is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. Head to their channel to discover more awesome viceos. This episode
was written by me, Phil Plait. The script was edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant
is Dr. Michelle Thaller. It was co-directed by Nicholas Jenkins and Michael Aranda, edited by Nicole
Sweeney, and the graphics team is Thought Café.

100 thoughts on “Venus: Crash Course Astronomy #14

  1. Richard Robledo Post author

    On Monday, 2019 November 11, Mercury will transit the Sun for the first time since 2016. The transit or passage of a planet across the face of the Sun is a relatively rare occurrence. As seen from Earth, only transits of Mercury and Venus are possible. There are approximately 13 transits of Mercury each century. In comparison, transits of Venus occur in pairs with more than a century separating each pair.

  2. Lisa Price Post author

    Earth is the best.. that's why we were born here. Love your land and get off the drugs, dude.

  3. Lisa Price Post author

    The way you speak of Venus (like most people) doesn't make sense. You speak of it like it's some physical place when it's proper use (like other planets) is used for it's own spiritual ends. Look up the magickal properties of Venus. There's a whole world right there. Mix that with a meditative state and what you want to attune yourself into and you got a shortcut to power. There's nothing evil to it, on the contrary, it's our GOD-given right.

  4. Uncle Chico Post author

    Nobody knows anything about nothing on the other side of the dome we're under

  5. Ehena Choudhary Post author

    It could be that the craters on Venus haven't eroded yet because of some mineral that keeps them impact but that's not my point. I wonder that if the atmosphere of Venus is so dense, denser than Earth's in fact, then it should've had even less craters than the Earth's surface. But then the Moon acts like a shield for the Earth and Venus doesn't have that then that could also be the reason of finding several craters despite there being an extremely dense Atmosphere.

    Did I just answer my own question ? Anyway just putting it out there.

  6. Morgan Huber Post author

    Venus's "day" is not longer than it's year. Its sidereal day or 360° spin is longer than its orbit period (year), but its solar day, which is THE common understanding of the word "day" (also the unit of measure for time in your example is SOLAR Earth days) is around 116 solar Earth days.

  7. Shayde Liger Post author

    Did he talk about how the atmospheric pressure is over 90 times ours?

  8. Gerald Kennedy Post author

    Me: I wanna move to Venus!
    the devil would like to know your location

  9. Fire Line Post author

    So Venus is in eternal PMS??

    (goes to the corner)

  10. The HoSS Post author

    Back in the 1950s people thought Venus was a maximum of 210 degrees fahrenheit with the greenhouse effect included. That is a big stretch to say that the same mechanism could cause the planet to be 800+ degrees.

  11. Melvorgazh Post author

    How would be life on Earth like if it had the mass and size of Venus?
    Would we still have a strong enough magnetic field?

  12. Mart In Post author

    Love can be hell or love can be the most beautiful thing ever

  13. Lord Colin Post author

    Carbon dioxide atmosphere? Hottest planet in the solar system? Come on, total coincidence. Right?

  14. david johanson Post author

    you saw both transits?, wow that is big to me!!!! you are so lucky. so jealous now.

  15. Ron S Post author

    lol venus is like an apparently hot girl who in reality has screwed thousands of guys and backstabbed thousands of girlfriends

  16. Shirokröte Post author

    The fact that I will never ever be able to see a venus transit makes me sad.

  17. ritesh kakkar Post author

    how to kill venus engineer

  18. Marc Guima Post author

    So basically Venus is us in the future.

  19. lmwrt Post author

    Try Immanuel Velikovsky…………….

  20. Alex Parer Post author

    Observation + speculation = obfuscation

  21. Jason M Post author

    I'd like to know the true color of the Sun. Is it white? IF so, then why do you continue to show it as yellow. Please answer this.

  22. Dalton Duncan Post author

    Is it the sun heating Venus's atmosphere or is it the fact that Venus has more active volcanos than any other planet in the solar system that makes it so hot? Would the heat of Venus have more to do with its volcanic surface than the sunlight hitting its atmosphere? What would heat the planet to make its surface so volcanic? Would orbital stresses heat the planet? Or did it get hit by something big, which would account for the relatively recent cratering, the backward spin, and the lack of a magnetosphere? Wish they would send more orbiters to study this planet. Earth's antarctic is colder than the rest of the earth, would it be colder on a mountain top or plateau near Venus' north or south pole to the point where a lander might survive?

  23. Gleep Wurp Post author

    Well you could tell by the images from that Russian spacecraft that landed on the surface in the 1970's that there was likely heavy volcanic activity on its surface. The rock and surface were flattened, elongated. Looks like hardened lava flows. Very active surface, 'repaving' it continuously. Granted those pics were just from one isolated area. But it makes sense it surface would be like that.

  24. Gokhan Sayram Post author

    Well… Venus might be the Love Goddess for us, but it was the God of War for the Mayans.

  25. Peter Mills Post author

    Don't listen to this pillock, just read Velikovsky , then you"ll know

  26. Commenter Five Post author

    Thanks for the Venus info. About 31 years ago, when he was maybe 9, my son and I were coming ashore from his 8' sailboat, and saw Mercury in transit, crossing the sun from left to right and diagonal down about 40° from horizontal. It looked like the image here but crossing the sun's lower half. The sun was around 10° from the western horizon, and the cloud layer was just thick enough to see the sun without it being too bright to look at. Chance of a lifetime.

  27. MagnumMike44 Post author

    Let's stop wasting time and effort, and possibly tax payer Dollars on figuring out ways to stop global warming on earth. It's not caused by man but by natural factors in our solar system and elements here on earth. Have the "global warming" scientists ever figured out that earth's oceans and seas have also contributed to the green house effect? Earth has warming and cooling cycles and each of the cycles can last from a period of less than a decade, to thousands of years, but earth will eventually become a lot like Venus in the distant future as the sun expands.

  28. Cowboy Geologist Post author

    Wow, love this video. Very well done. I like all the things around you too. That could easily be my office – ?

  29. Dewadatta Avasare Post author

    Venus is earth's hot sister
    ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

  30. Wayne Salvador Post author

    And Zero mention of the USSR Venera 14 mission..
    I saw the you slipped in a few photos.

  31. The Garden of Eatin Post author

    The depiction of Venus' orbit around the 1:00 mark…with a Venusian day being longer than its year, should it spin that fast?

  32. David Phipps Post author

    A day is not longer than a year on Venus. We don't measure days in sidereal days on Earth, why are you measuring days in sidereal days on Venus? It's 116 days long.

  33. Ira Alina Post author

    the only problem? (with extremely amiable and pleasant expression) venus is HELL

  34. Jeremy Ladue Post author

    What if, venus did have a moon and for some reason it collided with venus so directly, it tilted it to its awkward axis and dramatically slowed its rotation? And the cause of that may have been gravity from something passing by such as another planet astronomers have difficulty discovering or maybe a huge astroid collided with its moon toward venus’ direction ?

  35. Maritino Tikoimakogai Post author

    so, GHGs are natural occuring phenomenan?

  36. Mohamed Saber Post author

    god: how much volcanos do you want, Venus?
    venus: YES

  37. Marcus Head Post author

    "Venus was cooler when it was younger."

    Weren't we all.

    (lights a cigarette and watches the sunset morosely)

  38. Ramón Cárdenas Post author

    Not only Venus is quite hot, but its atmosphere is hella thicc.

  39. Christofer Fellicious Post author

    "I can't see a thing on the surface of Venus. Why not? Because it's covered with a dense layer of clouds. Well, what are clouds made of? Water, of course. Therefore, Venus must have an awful lot of water on it. Therefore, the surface must be wet. Well, if the surface is wet, it's probably a swamp. If there's a swamp, there's ferns. If there's ferns, maybe there's even dinosaurs."
    The Venutian Dinosaur fallacy.. 😛

  40. Chaos A.D. Post author

    How do you make a Venusian blind? Poke him in the eye!

  41. María Carla Post author

    did you know that planets and Rihanna's albums are the same thing? go see my latest video to find out why 😀

  42. Nicholas Rinaldi Post author


  43. Keith Callen Post author

    No mention of the upper atmosphere. Go up and the pressure is a comfy Earth like pressure and the temp is in the mid 70s F. Yeah, 200 mph winds and still a bunch of tasty sulfuric acid. But A LOT more hospitable than the surface. Cloud cities anyone?

  44. Disney Jazzcore Post author

    "Goddess of Love…"

    "Venus is Hell…"

    Sounds 'bout right…

  45. Mr. Clem Post author

    @ 6:21…. I love how everything is a "collision." Where's the evidence? Where's the impact/s on the surface? Where's all the debris? Venus doesn't even have a moon for christssakes!

    – Where did Earth's Moon come from? A collision (zero evidence)

    – Why does Uranus have an extreme axial tilt of 97.7*? A collision. (zero evidence)

    – How come Venus displays a retrograde motion? Oh, a collision again. (zero evidence)

  46. Mr. Clem Post author

    @ 6:21…. I love how everything is a "collision." Where's the evidence? Where's the impact/s on the surface? Where's all the debris? Venus doesn't even have a moon for christssakes!

    – Where did Earth's Moon come from? A collision (zero evidence)

    – Why does Uranus have an extreme axial tilt of 97.7*? A collision. (zero evidence)

    – How come Venus displays a retrograde motion? Oh, a collision again. (zero evidence)

  47. alejandro jose flores Post author


  48. Joseph Kane Post author

    I've a huge Venus that erupts every day, no wonder it's called the goddess of love.

  49. Hansjörg Reister Post author

    Great serious teaching about our solar system. And hey: runaway greenhouse effect – we are working on it.

  50. Effi the Eevee Post author

    Venus could have been tidally locked to Earth's orbital motion. Each time Earth and Venus' orbits brought them together, Earth's slower orbit might have pulled on its spin, slowing down and stopping it, and reversing it. Sounds farfetched I suppose since Earth and Venus are still very far apart and the Sun would probably exert stronger tides anyway, but, it's neat to think about.

  51. Jonathan Leiman Post author

    How can something "spin backwards," and how do we know it is doing such?

  52. Another Theory Post author

    You think venus is bad but in reality its WAY BETTER THEN MARS!!!!! The pressure is ok in tge sky, the gravity is similar to earth, and a bunch of other things

  53. Ashley Thomasina Grant Madden-Pierce Post author

    Anyone else wondering if his description of what happened to make Venus "hell" would happen to earth either because of the sun or our own human stupidity?

  54. Caden Jacobs Post author

    My life is now meaningless knowing I will never see a Venus transit :,))) At least Mercury's happens in 4 days

  55. Jan Petersson Post author

    Hello here is another SPACEDREAMER who tells You the most insane stories of something he saw on TV.

  56. Stefan Pijanowski Post author

    I understand that Venus absorbs roughly the same amount of solar energy as the Earth. Therefore is must also radiate the same amount as it is by now in thermal equilibrium. If it is so hot why does it radiate so little energy?

  57. Pr23 Post author

    Interesting to note the Russian space mission to have ever landed and taken pictures from Venus surface.

  58. Padraig McMahon Post author

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  66. Padraig McMahon Post author

    Look Jupiter Doitis big Red Spot lie liers lier Treadsy Friends♎♍♉♋♓♂️♀️there then Uinvers Friends Treadsy♀️♂️♍♉♋♓♌♊♐♏♑♒♎cost what you did all Damaged you cost you feel my Course Childrens pain Uinvers Friends Treadsy÷Sons and Daughters care Aubot Aubot Slbart Dad Thomas McMahon ARIES♂️♈Dad Unknown Slbart Farther Domind DOMINDS♂️♈AIRES?️?♠️?MARS÷Jupiter Capcorin?♑♈♂️Dominos DOMAINM

  67. Padraig McMahon Post author

    Next touers keep out GOD War way same for Sartery love of Treads she or he halp lier Deviers stap people in back love just Julasey Julemuon Sartery just can take haet of me GOD War that me AIRES♂️♈?️?♠️ and Jess GOD lovess AIRES Course♀️♈?️?♠️see hop fun if can Married sweetheart look hart Jess Course see thought lies list do Course Children make Happy you knows you McMahon worng for take slbeie allwasy AIRES love you Jess Course Fans Club Remember allwasy here sum shut our Friends make MARS live gaing in Haven Mary chertmax right Avere not all this just want Radamng for you no Game Relity life love be Family you Jess Cours♀️✨♈? geerk Thomas McMahon♂️✨♈? Antensery Together Thomas McMahon B.F.F Avere B.F.F Jess Course AIRES Course Happy Anniversary baby Should take date foerce Course McMahon Childrens happen soon too vear ner end times wininh for Haven Avere need not far way you Roscoe be Arng Furey same too life Complex take care Course McMahon Royalty Blood hart too Farther see soon Proines you wish gat see you grow up play Children hood have Fun America LA Mary Christmas X Course Childrens♀️??♂️TINTS of MARS Rules like Farther Thomas McMahon Unknown Slbart see soon hi Trarstsy know more Powerful then you can postbles Machein mary chimasx you Doitis Course LA America America lier not barrett me hold Ulmatemin Power mary Chimasx Fieack now big Star LA think Bartter Avere one know Pried sins sit Stiller Rlashishp Friendship sins love Hack Relationship Soperli Averething take Credit people work sin Pried sin Stiller my Relationship sin Cuppry MARS Olampas Sperten! know SPARTAN! GOD War ECILPS☀️?AIRES♂️♈ V Cuppry VERSUS Flivesss☀️GOD lovess AIRES♀️♈

  68. Rbo SMF Post author

    Reminds me of the Duran Duran track from Pop Trash (2000) called “Mars Meets Venus”.

    Great band and great album 🙂


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